Refrigerator components and How it works?

In this modern era, the world is full of technological pieces of equipment. Undoubtedly they add leisure to life.

The refrigerator is one of the well-known pieces of machinery invented to add advantages to human life. It is also known as a fridge and icebox.

Its usage of it is not only restrained to the cooling of edibles in the kitchen but it also helps in maintaining the required temperature of chemicals, reagents, cells, bodies, etc.

It has been proven the most helpful equipment for -survival but have you ever given it a thought that how does it work?

Knowing about the working and the entire process which takes place inside this icebox we must be aware of the parts or components which are inbuilt inside it.

Components of Refrigerator.

The major components which make the working of the refrigerator possible are five in number.

Fluid Refrigerant

The first one is Fluid Refrigerant which is an inescapable element of it. In the entire cooling process inside the box, it is converted in the vapor format from the fluid state and then in fluid format from the vapor state.

The name of this fluid is Tetraflouroethane, also known as R134a.


The second one is the Compressor which is placed at the backside of the refrigerator. As the name signifies it compresses the air to change the state of the refrigerant fluid.


The third one is the Condenser which helps to condense or cool down the vapor form of fluid.

In the old models of refrigerators, It was a web-like structure in which the fluid moves and cools down but in the newly developed refrigerators, it was replaced by the condenser fan which blows the cool air to lower the temperature.

Expansion valve

The fourth one is the Expansion valve which has a very fine or narrow slit from where the fluid enters it.


The fifth and last element in the working of the refrigerator is Evaporator which maintains an equal temperature inside the entire box.

How does Refrigerator work?

Now when it comes to the working process the first we all do is to switch on the refrigerator and after switching it on, the first component which comes into ineffective mode is the compressor.

It is consist of two segments:

  1. The first one is the inlet.
  2. The other one is the outlet.

Fluid to Vapor

In the inlet segment when the fluid enters it meets up with the high pressure which is generated by the compressor and consequently the fluid converts itself into the vapor form.

Because of the continuous working, the compressor heats up. It can be understood by a general example- when we pump the air in the tire of a bicycle it is filled with it and the temperature of the pump also increases.

Similarly, the fluid attains temperature and heats up. Hence due to the increased temperature, it starts converting itself into the vapor state from the fluid state.

After conversion, the vapor enters the condenser where the high pressured vapor circulates in a web-like structure and the temperature is decreased.

As it has been told above the old models have these web-like condensers which take more time than the fan condensers.

These fan condensers quickly cool down the vapor at a required temperature but the old condensers do the same process at room temperature.

Pressure is Lowered.

In the further process, the low pressured and cold fluid comes to the expansion valve where it passes through a very fine slit or hole.

Here in the expansion valve some amount of the fluid converts itself into vapor form and the rest of the substance stays in the fluid state but the pressure status of the whole stuff is lowered.

The mixture of the vapor and fluid now comes to the evaporator section. In this section, the residual fluid also adopts its vapor state.

This phenomenon is easy to understand by the example- when we pour down some water on a burning body part or utensil the heat of that part or utensil turns into a fume or vapor and hence the object is cooled down.

Circulation of Chilled Vapour.

Now the low pressured and completely concerted vapor is circulated inside the refrigerator and the edibles which are placed inside it soak this chilled vapor and remain in their good condition.

Simultaneously the edibles emit their heat and this is further sent to the compressor section. Hence the complete cycle goes on and on. 

In the old refrigerators, the compressor after attaining the required cold temperature stops working.

But in the newly developed refrigerating machines the fan compressors slower down their pace without stopping still after attaining the required cooling temperature.

Whenever we open the door of the refrigerator the heat of the outside environment enters into it, and the compressor starts working to maintain the temperature.

Important Tips for Maintenance:

As our human body needs proper care to work efficiently, the same way these electronic pieces of equipment need proper care to be in a fine condition.

We can follow some steps to milk them maximum.

  • Monitor Temperature.
  • Avoid Stuffing Of Food.
  • Check stored food
  • Clean Regularly

Monitor Temperature.

Always monitor the temperature which can be adjusted by a moveable lid. In summers it can be enhanced while in winters it can be lowered.

Avoid Stuffing Of Food.

Try to avoid crowding inside the refrigerator. There should always be enough spacing between the edible items so that the air can easily circulate and make them cool. If there will be no space or less space between the items they will be spoiled.

Check stored food

Check the refrigerator and discard the contaminated food items without a delay so that the rest items will survive for a longer time.

Separate the highly sensitive food items like- raw meat, fish, poultry, delicate fruits, and leafy vegetables which can be quickly contaminated when placed in contact with other items.

Clean Regularly

Try to wipe out the dust, leftovers, and spills which are left unintentionally inside it. Clean each of the racks and containers to avoid the stinking of food items.

These some less time taking but most effective measures can help to keep your refrigerator always in a prime, productive, and working stage.

Remember what provides leisure needs attention and care as well.